Later sketchbooks cover color studies (studies of paint), and on location sketches. Earlier sketchbooks show copies of other artist’s work and mannered sketches of nature. All are exercises for larger paintings for Joseph MW Turner. Late 18th and early 19th century.
A NY Times article of 1910 about Turner’s sketchbooks (and art works?) states, “a theory of art that demands something beyond the representation of nature, however managed, and the aim of which is intellectual satisfaction.” (see full article (pdf).
Watercolor, chalk, and pencil on unique paper.
Artist: Joseph MW Turner.
The collection of Turner’s sketchbooks online at the Tate.